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SAP IS Oil and Gas Interview Question & Answers

Our experts providing  SAP Oil and Gas  Interview Questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

1) What are the different categories of Oil found worldwide?

  • There are about 161 different types of Oil found worldwide. The different categories of Oil found worldwide is classified into different types of crude oil like Brent, Dubai Crude, West Texas, Intermediate, etc. Classification is done according to their sulphur content.

2) Explain what is OPEC?

  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is also known as OPEC.

3) What is the purpose of forming OPEC?

  • It is a collection of countries which produces crude oil and is founded in 1960, in order to regulate the process of export of their crude oil to the other countries of the world and to decide the crude oil prices. Together OPEC’s 12 member countries supplies about 40% of the world’s oil supply.

4) Who are the members of OPEC currently?

• Iran
• Iraq
• Kuwait
• Venezuela
• Saudi Arabia
• Qatar
• Indonesia
• Libya
• U A E
• Algeria
• Nigeria
• Angola

5) On what basis Crude Oil prices are determined?

  • Crude oil is a commodity, and the prices depend on the demand and supply.

6) Who controls or decides the Oil prices?

  • OPEC does not decide the crude oil prices, though it influence the market prices. It is following exchange market that decides global crude oil prices

• New York Mercantile Exchange ( NYMEX)
• International Petroleum Exchange in London (IPE)
• Singapore International Monetary Exchange (SIMEX)

7) How U.S dollar contribute to the rising Oil prices?

  • On the world market, oil is priced in U.S dollars. So, when dollar becomes weaker, foreign currency becomes stronger, which means foreign countries can buy more oil at same amount of money. As people in other countries start buying more, demand rises, and it drives up the price in dollars, which again influence the price of oil in the global market.

8) Explain how much do you pay for a gallon of regular gasoline?

  • On a regular gallon of gasoline, you will pay about

• Crude Oil: About 67% of what you pay goes to the cost of crude oil
• Refining costs and profits: About 14%
• Distribution, Marketing and Retail costs and profits: 8%
• Taxes: 12%

9) Mention what is the amount of ethanol present in gasoline?

  • Approximately about 10% -15 % of ethanol is present per gallon of gasoline, and it is denoted by E10.

10) Explain what is PowerShares DB Energy Fund?

  • In the energy commodities, this fund is the most rounded investment in the energy commodities. This fund is invested in the energy futures contract like heating oil, Brent crude oil, RBOB gasoline and natural gas.

11) What are the factors that decide the retail price of Gasoline?

  • The gasoline retail price is determined by following factors

• Transportation costs
• Location (Urban/ Rural)
• Average volume pumped
• Competitive mix ( Concentration of major oil companies and independent marketers)

12) What are the taxes you have to pay on your gasoline?

  • There are State taxes and Federal taxes that is levied on your gasoline, though taxes changes from one state to another. You are paying approx. 23% of state taxes per gallon of your gasoline that may vary to 40% depending upon the state. While, federal government excise tax is about 18 percent per gallon.

13) Mention what are the factors that can fluctuate in gasoline price?

  • The factors that can fluctuate the gasoline price are

• Changes to the price of crude oil
• Major supply disruption in any area of the country
• Increased consumer demand
• Expected or unexpected outages of any refinery
• Activity on the commodities market

14) Who analyse and does research of the Oil and Natural gas supply in U.S?

  • EIA (Energy Information Administration) is an independent agency of the United States Department of Energy, which gives all the weekly detail or data of the supply of oil and natural gas in U.S. It schedules weekly publications known as WEEKLY PETROLEUM STATUS REPORT and THE WEEK IN PETROLEUM.

15) Explain how many gallons of gasoline does one barrel of oil can be made?

  • From one barrel (42 gallons) U. S refineries make about 19 gallons of motor gasoline. The residue yields other refined products such as distillate and residual fuel oil.

16) Which states are among the high paying price for gasoline?

  • Some of the states that are paying more price for gasoline other than other states are

• California
• New York
• Alaska
• Connecticut
• Michigan
• Pennsylvania
• Indiana
• Maine

17) Explain how much do oil companies make on each dollar you spend on gas?

  • Oil and natural gas industry make 8.6% for every dollar of sales.

18) Mention what are the requirements for importing natural gas, oil and petroleum into the U.S?

  • For importing petroleum or petroleum products to U.S, you don’t need a license to import these items, but you need to file a form called EIA814 with the EIA (Energy Information Administration).

19) What is API gravity?

  • API means American Petroleum Institute; it is the main association for the oil and natural gas industry in U.S. The API denotes about 400 corporations in the petroleum industry and helps to set the standard for production, refinement and distribution of petroleum product.

20) How API is calculated?

  • API is nothing but the ratio of its density compare to other substance like water to check the standard of the oil. The formula to check API is
  • API gravity = (141.5/ Specific Gravity) – 131.5

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MongoDB Interview Question & Answers

By giving expert level trainers from Spiritsofts are MongoDB interview questions & Answers can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

1)  Explain what is MongoDB?

Mongo-DB is a document database which provides high performance, high availability and easy scalability.

2) What is sharding in MongoDB?

The procedure of storing data records across multiple machines is referred as Sharding. It is a MongoDB approach to meet the demands of data growth. It is the horizontal partition of data in a database or search engine. Each partition is referred as shard or database shard.

3) What is “Namespace” in MongoDB?

MongoDB stores BSON (Binary Interchange and Structure Object Notation) objects in the collection. The concatenation of the collection name and database name is called a namespace.

4) How can you see the connection used by Mongos?

To see the connection used by Mongos use db_adminCommand (“connPoolStats”);

5) Explain what is a replica set?

A replica set is a group of mongo instances that host the same data set. In replica set, one node is primary, and another is secondary. From primary to the secondary node all data replicates.

6) How replication works in MongoDB?

Across multiple servers, the process of synchronizing data is known as replication. It provides redundancy and increase data availability with multiple copies of data on different database server. Replication helps in protecting the database from the loss of a single server.

7) While creating Schema in MongoDB what are the points need to be taken in consideration?

Points need to be taken in consideration are
Design your schema according to user requirements Combine objects into one document if you use them together. Otherwise, separate them Do joins while write, and not when it is on read For most frequent use cases optimize your schema Do complex aggregation in the schema

8) What is the syntax to create a collection and to drop a collection in MongoDB?

Syntax to create collection in MongoDB is db.createCollection(name,options)Syntax to drop collection in MongoDB is db.collection.drop()

9) Explain what is the role of profiler in MongoDB?

MongoDB database profiler shows performance characteristics of each operation against the database. You can find queries using the profiler that are slower than they should be.

10) Explain can you move old files in the moveChunk directory?

Yes, it is possible to move old files in the moveChunk directory, during normal shard balancing operations these files are made as backups and can be deleted once the operations are done.

11) To do safe backups what is the feature in MongoDB that you can use?

Journaling is the feature in MongoDB that you can use to do safe backups.

12) Mention what is Objecld composed of?

Objectld is composed of
Timestamp Client machine ID Client process ID 3 byte incremented counter

13) Mention what is the command syntax for inserting a document?

For inserting a document command syntax is database.collection.insert (document).

14) Mention how you can inspect the source code of a function?

To inspect a source code of a function, without any parentheses, the function must be invoked.

15) What is the command syntax that tells you whether you are on the master server or not? And how many master does MongoDB allow?

Command syntax Db.isMaster() will tell you whether you are on the master server or not. MongoDB allows only one master server, while couchDB allows multiple masters.

16) Mention the command syntax that is used to view Mongo is using the link?

The command syntax that is used to view mongo is using the link is db._adminCommand(“connPoolStats.”)

17) Explain what are indexes in MongoDB?

Indexes are special structures in MongoDB, which stores a small portion of the data set in an easy to traverse form. Ordered by the value of the field specified in the index, the index stores the value of a specific field or set of fields.

18) Mention what is the basic syntax to use index in MongoDB?

The basic syntax to use in MongoDB is >db.COLLECTION_NAME.ensureIndex ( {KEY:1} ). In here the key is the the name of the COLUMN (or KEY:VALUE pair) which is present in the documents.

19) Explain what is GridFS in MongoDB?

For storing and retrieving large files such as images, video files and audio files GridFS is used. By default, it uses two files fs.files and fs.chunks to store the file’s metadata and the chunks.

20) What are alternatives to MongoDB?

Cassandra, CouchDB, Redis, Riak, Hbase are a few good alternatives.

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Shell Scripting Interview Question & Answers

Our experts providing  Shell Scripting  Interview Questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

Q: What is a shell?

Shell is a interface between user and the kernel. Even though there can be only one kernel ; a system can have many shell running simultaneously . Whenever a user enters a command through keyboard the shell communicates with the kernel to execute it and then display the output to the user.

Q: What are the different types of commonly used shells on a typical linux system?

csh,ksh,bash,Bourne . The most commonly used and advanced shell used today is “Bash” .

Q : What is the equivalent of a file shortcut that we have on window on a Linux system?

Shortcuts are created using “links” on Linux. There are two types of links that can be used namely “soft link” and “hard link”

Q: What is the difference between soft and hard links?

Soft links are link to the file name and can reside on different filesytem as well; however hard links are link to the inode of the file and has to be on the same filesytem as that of the file. Deleting the orginal file makes the soft link inactive (broken link) but does not affect the hard link (Hard link will still access a copy of the file)

Q: How will you pass and access arguments to a script in Linux?

Arguments can be passed as:

scriptName “Arg1” “Arg2”….”Argn” and can be accessed inside the script as $1 , $2 .. $n

Q: What is the significance of $#?

$# shows the count of the arguments passed to the script.

Q: What is the difference between $* and $@?

$@ treats each quoted arguments as separate arguments but $* will consider the entire set of positional parameters as a single string.

Q: How will you find the 99th line of a file using only tail and head command?

tail +99 file1|head -1

Q:In my bash shell I want my prompt to be of format ‘$”Present working directory”:”hostname”> and load a file containing a list of user defined functions as soon as I login , how will you automate this?

In bash shell we can create “.profile” file which automatically gets invoked as soon as I login and write the following syntax into it.
export PS1=’$ `pwd`:`hostname`>’ .File1

Q: Explain about “s” permission bit in a file?

“s” bit is called “set user id” (SUID) bit.

“s” bit on a file causes the process to have the privileges of the owner of the file during the instance of the program.

Eg: Executing “passwd” command to change current password causes the user to writes its new password to shadow file even though it has “root” as its owner.

Q: How can you find out how long the system has been running?

Command “uptime”

Q: How can any user find out all information about a specific user like his default shell, real life name, default directory,when and how long he has been using the sytem?

finger “loginName” …where loginName is the login name of the

user whose information is expected.

Q: What is the difference between $$ and $!?

$$ gives the process id of the currently executing process whereas $! shows the process id of the process that recently went into background.

Q: What are zombie processes?

These are the processes which have died but whose exit status is still not picked by the parent process. These processes even if not functional still have its process id entry in the process table.

Q: How will you copy file from one machine to other?

We can use utilities like “ftp” ,”scp” or “rsync” to copy file from one machine to other.

Eg: Using ftp:

ftp hostname

>put file1


Above copies file file1 from local system to destination system whose hostname is specified.

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Successfactors LMS Interview Question & Answers

Our experts providing  Successfactors LMS Interview Questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

Spiritsofts Online Training Institute has Excellent Trainers which they all having very good experience along with Certifications.
By giving expert level trainers who are working in top MNC’s,  we do prepare the students for their job.

1. How many types of data models are present in employee central?

A. seven(7)

2. How can you mask sensible data in fields?

A. by setting the attribute pii=”true”.

3. How can you set the field so that user can edit it ?

A. by setting the attribute visible=”both”.

4. How can you set the field to be required so that it can be filled?

A. by setting the attribute required=”true”.

5. What is meant by DTD?

A. It is a data model defined by Document type definition.
My view is to construct a highly unified hr in the cloud. A highly unified HR is the main person to maximise the business outcomes of the organisation.

6. Define Success factors and why are they called by that name ?

A. Because they explain behaviours which results to successful performance in the job.

7. Why three levels are present in a framework?

A. because they explain a wide range of behavior types which are close to different job roles. despite their levels are not ranked.

8. What is the importance of success factors ? how can we select the correct one?

A. By using the job analysis information and suggestions from the HR and other manager in desired roles one can predict the success factors. It can be made easy by practice.

9. Suppose a success factor is changed in a year what will you review by the next PDR?

A. With the communication between the individual and the manager the change can also fade on PDR form

10. Is it necessary to select the same level for the identified success factors?

A. No, it may result in single level.

11. Can a success factor be changed if it is already selected for a particular role?

A. Yes , it is based on the requirements and wants of any role at anytime. It is mobile and can change for every year,

12. what type of support can one have by success factors?

A. managers can get training. By using it proper guidance and documentation will also be present on HR website, all the team members of HR are able to provide advice.

13. will the assessment of success factors take much time ?

A. At first assessment can take time as it is a new process since, we are working on new concepts they can bring benefits.

14. Can we ‘get rid’ of people by using success factors?

A. No, this is not the reason why they are developed. They are employed to grow individuals, despite if the behaviors are compulsory for job there will be no development and it can be a performance issue

15. What is the case if the employee don’t agree the success factors that are given by his manager?

A. The manager keeps the job information and analysis to estimate the success factors in conjunction with discussions of the individual. Finally it depends on the manager’s decision

16. How Much Evidence In Assessing Success Factors Will We Be Expected To Produce?

A. Look over the previous 12 months for examples and pick out the 2 or 3 which demonstrate the Success Factors the most.

17. In What Way Can Employee Central Be Integrated With Success Factors Products?

A. With the help of HRIS sync by success Factors Products, Employee central can be Integrated Internally.

18. In What Way Can Employee Central Be Integrated Externally With Other Products?

A. External Integration of employee central can be done by using Cloud based integration platform.

19. What Is Present In Succession Data Model?

A. All the records of the employee are present in succession data model.This type of succession data mode constructs the fields both internal(information related to employment) and external(personal information of employee) works’s.

20. How Do You Integrate Employee Central With Other Successfactors Products?

A. Employee Central integrates internal with other SuccessFactors products through HRIS Sync.


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SAP ABAP Interview Question & Answers

Our experts providing  SAP ABAP Interview Questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

Spiritsofts Online Training Institute has Excellent Trainers which they all having very good experience along with Certifications.
By giving expert level trainers who are working in top MNC’s,  we do prepare the students/ for their job.

1) What is SAP ABAP?

SAP is a type of software known as ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) that large company use to manage their day to day affairs. ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is the coding language for SAP to develop RICEFW objects. (Reports, Interfaces, Extensions, Forms and Workflows).

2) List down the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?

There are 3 functional modules which are used in sequence to perform data transfer successfully using BDC programming. They are

3) Explain the difference between Template and Table?

The difference between the table and template is that, table is a dynamic and template is a static.

4) Mention what is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP?

ALV stands for Application List Viewer. To enhance the output of the report, SAP provides a set of ALV function modules which can be used, and it also improves the functionality and readability of any report output. It is an efficient tool used for arranging the columns in a report output.

5) Mention the difference between ABAP and OOABAP? In what situation do you use OOABAP?

ABAP is used to develop traditional programs in R/3, while OOABAP is used to develop BSP/ PCUI applications and also anything that an involved object oriented like BADI’s and SmartForms etc.

6) What is table buffer? Which type of tables used this buffer?

Over here, buffer means memory area, table buffer means the table information is available on the application server. When you call data from database table, it will come from application server. Transparent tables and pool tables are buffered, while cluster table cannot be buffered.

7) What are the different databases Integrities?

a) Semantic Integrity

b) Relational Integrity

c) Primary Key Integrity

d) Value Set Integrity

e) Foreign Key Integrity

f) Operational Integrity

8) How to create ‘table cluster’?

a) In ABAP dictionary, select object type Table, enter a table name and choose create

b) A field maintenance screen for the table is displayed. Table type Transparent table, set it as a default

c) Make the necessary entries in the short description and delivery classified on the Attributes page. Then define the fields of the table.

d) Proceed as when creating a transparent table. Now save your entries

e) Now choose EXTRAS‡Change table category

f) When a dialogue box appears you have to select the table type ‘Pooled table’ or ‘Cluster table’

g) After selecting the table, return to the field maintenance screen for the table. Field pool or cluster name is displayed on the Attributes tab page in addition to the standard fields.

h) Now enter the name of the table cluster or table pool to which you want to assign the cluster table.

9) What is the difference between ‘Type’ and ‘Like’?

‘Type’: You assign data type directly to the data object while declaring.

‘Like’: You assign the data type of another object to the declaring data object.

‘Type’ refers the existing data type while ‘Like’ refers to the existing data object.

10) What do you mean by BDC (Batch Data Communications) programming?

It is an automatic procedure to transfer large or external data into SAP system. ‘Queue file’ is the central component of the transfer, which receives the data through batch input programs and groups that are associated into ‘sessions’.

11) What is the use of ‘pretty printer’?

To format the ABAP code ‘pretty printer’ is used.

12) How data is stored in cluster table?

A cluster table contains data from multiple DDIC tables. It stores data as name value pair.

13) Describe the data classes?

The data classes are classified into following classes

Master Data: The data in this class seldom change

Transaction Data: The data can be changed often in this class

Organization Data: This data is a customized data and is entered in the system when the system is configured. It is rarely changed.

System Data: This data is used by R/3 system itself

14) What is a foreign key relationship?

To ensure the consistency of data, foreign keys are used. The relationship established between the tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Data entered should be checked against the existing data to ensure that there is no contradiction. Cardinality has to be specified while defining foreign key relationship.

15) What are the ways you can do the tuning? What are the major steps will you use for these?

Tunning can be done in three ways disk i/o, SQL tunning and memory tunning. Before tunning, you have to get the status of your database using oracle utility called statpack and tkprof .

16) How can you debug a script form?

To debug a script form, you have to follow

SE71–>give the form name->utilities->activate debugger

17) What are different types of parameters? How can you distinguish between different kinds of parameters?

The different types of parameters are

a) Formal Parameters: It is defined during the definition of subroutine with the ‘FORM’ statement

b) Actual Parameters: It is specified during the call of a subroutine with the ‘PERFORM’ statement

You can distinguish different kind of parameters by their functionality. Input parameters are used to pass data to subroutines, while output parameters are used to pass data from subroutines.

18) What are the different ABAP/4 editors? What are the differences?

The 2 editors are SE38 and SE80 and both have the ABAP editor in place. In SE38 , you can create programs and view online reports and basically do all the development of objects in this editor. In SE80, there are additional features such as creating packages, function group, module pool, classes, programs and BSP applications.

19) When do we use End-of-selection?

End of the selection event is mostly used when we are writing HR-ABAP code. In the HR-ABAP code, data is retrieved in the start of selection event and printing on the list and all will be done at the end of the selection event.

20) How can you create callable modules of program code within one ABAP/4 program?

a) By defining Macros

b) By creating include programs in the library.

21) What do you mean by an ABAP data dictionary?

To describe the logical structures of the objects that are used in application development ABAP 4 data dictionary is used. It is also used to show the underlying relational database in tables.

22) Explain the difference between pool tables and transparent tables?

Transparent tables: It has one to one relation with the table in the database. Its structure corresponds to single database field.

Pooled tables: It has many to one relation with the table in the database. Pooled tables are stored at the database level.

a) Basic List: For simple reports

b) Statistics: For Percentage, Average etc.

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SAP Lumira Interview Questions and Answers

Our experts providing  SAP Lumira interview questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

1.Why do we use SAP Lumira as BI tool?

It allows you to predict future outcomes and forecast as per changing market situations.

You can create data visualizations and stories from multiple data sources.

It helps you to adapt data to organizational needs to create stories with visualizations.

You can share the visualizations on different platforms like SAP HANA, BO Explorer, Business Objects BI Platform, etc.

2.Why do we use custom calculations in data set?

You can create custom calculations in Lumira data Visualization which are not available in data set or at database level.


You have a “Salary” column in the data set, you can add a new calculated column with name “Bonus” and can apply a calculation on Salary to get the value of this column.

3.What is the use of different tabs in Lumira?


This is used to import data set in SAP Lumira. Data cleansing is done and converted into the appropriate measures or attributes for the reports.

You can add new custom calculations here.


This tab is used to add graphs and charts on the data that has been imported and organized in Prepare tab. You can add different attributes and measures to Label axis.


This is used to create stories and presentation, including background colors, titles, pictures, and text.


This tab is used to publish your visualisations to different platforms or with different set of users in BI Repository.

4.How do you connect SAP Lumira to HANA Modelling views?

You can connect to SAP HANA Modelling views in SAP Lumira. You have 2 options –

Connect to SAP HANA
Download from SAP HANA

5.What is the difference between two options to connection to HANA Modelling views?

By selecting option – “connect to SAP HANA”. This will allow you to access data in read mode and you can visualise data in charts.

Download from SAP HANA

This options allows you to copy the data locally and you can edit and manipulate the data to visualise in the charts.

6.Can we add hidden columns from an excel spreadsheets to Lumira data set?

Yes, on Advance option to select custom range. You can also include hidden rows and columns.

7.When you acquire a data set, it comes under which of the tab to perform data cleansing and editing?


This is used to import data set in SAP Lumira. Data cleansing is done and converted into the appropriate measures or attributes for the reports.

8.How can you acquire data from an InfoProvider in Lumira data set?

Add new dataset ? connect to SAP Business Warehouse

9.When you use query with SQL option to acquire data set, you can see few of the connections in red and green. What is the meaning?

To use SQL query to create data set, go to file ? New

Click on Query with SQL option to download a dataset and click on Next. JDBC drivers has to be installed for database middle-ware for using SQL query. The access driver is .jar files you can download from vendor site and copy to driver folder in application path.

Select SQL query, all queries in green presents drivers are installed properly for middle-ware. Select database middle-ware for target database and click on Next.

10.What are the different connection parameters that can be configured while using Query with SQL as data source?

Connection Pool Mode: To keep connection active

Pool timeout: Time duration to keep connection active in minutes.

Array Fetch Size: to determine number of rows to fetch from target database.

Array Bind Size: Larger bind array, more number of rows will be fetched.

Login Timeout: Time before a connection attempts a timeout.

JDBC Driver Properties

11.What are the different panels in Prepare tab for data cleansing and applying filters?

Dimension and Measure Panel

It contains list of all dimensions and measures acquired in data set. Number in front of each object represents its data type.

You can use different tools in this panel to edit the data objects and to add hierarchies.

Data set Selector

You can select between multiple data sets or you can also acquire a new data set using this option.

Filter Bar

This represents filter applied to any dimension in data set. To add a filter click on the icon in front of data set and click on Filter.

12.What is chart canvas?

This is used to create or modify a visualisation. You can directly drag attributes and measures to chart canvas or can add to chart builder.

You can add various tools like

Sorted by Dimensions
Add or Edit a ranking by measures
Clear Chart
Fit chart to frame
Re prompt

13.What are the different chart canvas properties that you can set in Lumira?

Chart Canvas Layout
Chart Style
Font Zoom, etc.

14.Where do you define properties for Chart Canvas?

Go to File ? Preferences ? Charts

Here you can define various properties for chart canvas.

15.What is the use of compose tab?

You can create different stories in SAP Lumira in presentation style document using visualisation, graphics and other customisation that has been applied to data set.

Once you go to compose tab you get multiple options to select an Info graphic, Board or a Report.

16.What are the different chart types in SAP Lumira?

Bar Chart
Column Chart
Radar Chart
Pie Chart
Donut Chart
Scatter Plot
Bubble Chart
Network Chart
And many more

17.Which chart types are best suited to show correlation between different values?

Scatter Plot
Bubble Chart
Network Chart
Numeric Point

18.What is the use of Geography charts in SAP Lumira? What are different chart types under this category?

It is used to present map of country or globe present in the analysis. Common chart types are –

Geo Bubble Chart
Geo Choropleth Chart
Geo Pie Chart
Geo Map

19.What is Conditional formatting?

It is used to mention critical data points in a chart by different values meeting certain condition. Multiple conditional formatting rules can be applied on measures or dimensions.

20.Which chart types support conditional formatting in SAP Lumira?

Conditional formatting can be applied on –

Bar and Column charts (except 3D column charts)
Pie chart
Donut chart
Scatter chart
Bubble chart
Cross tab

21.Can you add multiple data sets in SAP Lumira?

Yes, you can select between multiple data sets or you can also acquire a new data set using this option.

22.What is the use of filters?

Filters are used to limit the data in Lumira Visualisations. You can pass various filter conditions to restrict data comes in visualisations and stories.

23.Can we add filters in charts under Visualise tab?

Yes, you can apply filter on a chart in Visualise tab. Click on Add filter and select aa dimension or a measure to add a filter to the chart.

24.What is the use of display formatting option in Prepare tab?

You can set the below formatting for an attribute or dimension –

Select a Value format
Choose a Display format
Prefix or suffix

25.Can we convert data types in SAP Lumira for data set?

You can also convert data type into another. In Prepare tab ? Go to column heading ? Options

26.What is the use of hierarchies?

Hierarchies are used to display data at different granularity level and you can drill up/down at different levels for better understanding of relationship between objects.

27.What is geography hierarchy? How we can create geography hierarchy in data set?

When data is acquired, application looks for dimension containing location and present with an icon.

Click on option icon in front of a dimension ? Create a Geographic hierarchy ? By Names (this option is available only for string dimensions).

New window will open with name Geographical data ? select the dimension to map to hierarchy and click on Confirm.

28.What is the meaning of Green, yellow and red while acquiring data for a hierarchy?

Locations mapped exactly are marked with green.

Locations with more than one possible match (for example, if more than one city named London was found) are marked with yellow.

Locations not found in the geographic database are marked with Red.

29.How do use hierarchies in the charts added to chart canvas in SAP Lumira?

When hierarchies are defined on data set, you can use drill up or drill down option to move to next level.

30.What is a custom hierarchy?

You can create hierarchies using any available combination of dimensions in acquired data set.

31.How do you create custom hierarchies in SAP Lumira? How do you define level in a custom hierarchy?

Let us say you want to create a custom hierarchy on Category ? Product

Select Category ? Options ? Create a Custom hierarchy

New window will open. Enter the name of hierarchy and select the other dimensions to add to next levels and click on Create. Arrows can be used to change the level.

32.How you can open multiple data set in a single Lumira document?

It allows you to open multiple datasets in a single document and you can add dataset to a document.

Go to Data pane at the top ? Add new Data set

33.You have added multiple data sets in SAP Lumira. How do you perform merging of data sets?

You can also merge two data set by using Join operator.

Go to Data pane at the top ? Combine ? Merge

34.To perform a merge on multiple data sets, what are the conditions to perform a merge?

To merge

They should have same key column.

Column with same data type can be merged.

All columns will be merged.

35.What is the use of Merge type option in SAP Lumira?

Merge type defines the type of join. You can select from different join types – Inner join, outer join, etc.

36.What is the different between combine and Append data sets in Lumira?

Merge is used to apply different joins on data sets.

You can use Union operator to append two datasets.

37.How do you append data sets in Lumira?

To append data sets in Lumira, go to Data ? Combine ? Append

To use append, both tables should contain same number of columns and compatible data types. Only compatible data types can be appended.

38.You have acquired data sets with different number of columns and different data types, when you perform append on these data sets what will happen?

When you perform an append and both source and target dimensions are different, message appears-Union cannot happen.

39.If you want to see how data is spread over multiple axis in a single chart, which option you can use in Lumira?

You can also add measures as a dimension in SAP Lumira. To do this add two or more measures as dimensions in the chart. This can be used to check how data is spread over multiple axis in a single chart.

40.How do you use measures as dimensions in SAP Lumira charts?

Go to Settings and click on use Measures as dimensions option. Once you select this option, measures are displayed as new measure dimension in Dimension panel.

41.Is it possible to ass custom charts in SAP Lumira?

You can use SAP Lumira software development kit SDK. You can add custom charts in SAP Lumira using VizPacker and these charts will be added to list of available charts in canvas.

42.How do you create stories in SAP Lumira in left, right, top and bottom slide show formats in compose tab?

To create a slide show, go to Compose ? Board ? Create. You can select different types of charts Left, Right, Bottom, Top, etc.

43.Is it possible to create customise stories in SAP Lumira? How you can add company logos, custom images to Lumira presentations?

You can also create customise stories in SAP Lumira. To create customise stories, you can add different types of pages in a story. To add a page click on Add Page and select a page you want to add to story.

Drag the Visualisation from left panel to the story. You can also add images from local machine. Go to Pictures and click on + sign.

44.To see the available built in images to add to Lumira presentations, where you can add these to stories?

There are inbuilt images that can be used in a story. Go to Pictogram on left side and it will show you all the available pictograms that can be used in a story.

45.What are the different formats you can export your data sets in SAP Lumira?

You can save data set as .csv or. xls file.

To do this go to Share tab and select the data set from left panel. Go to File ? Export As

46.Is it possible to print the visualisations? How can we print the visualisations in SAP Lumira?

Yes, To Print a Visualisation, go to Share tab ? Select Visualizations and you will get an option to Print Visualization at the top.

47.When you publish a data set to SAP HANA, all the visualisations that are created on data set are also published?

Select the data set to be published. Once you select the data set you will see the options to publish data set to HANA. Only data set is published to HANA server and not visualisations.

48.Can you send visualisation in email to other users? What are the different export sizes that can be used?

Yes, you can export a visualisation to a printer or can also send in an email to a user. Go to options in a Visualisation and click on Send by mail.

Choose an Export Size-

Small, Medium, Large

49.What are the different data sources you can use in Lumira to acquire data set?

You can use below data sources in SAP Lumira

Excel file as a data source
Working with CSV files
Connecting SAP HANA views
Universe as a data source
Using Query with SQL
Using SAP BW InfoProvider as data source

50.How do use Universes as data source to acquire data set in SAP Lumira?

Universes that are created with .unx extension using Information Design Tool/.unv files created in UDT and published to BI repository can be used as data source in SAP Lumira.
Go to File ? New ? Click on Universe option to connect and to download a data set…..For more  Click Here

For Course Content  Click Here

SAP BO Design Studio Interview Questions and Answers

Our experts providing  SAP BO Design Studio Admin interview questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

1.Can Visual Composer Applications Be Migrated To Design Studios?

No, as Design Studio is the premium alternative to WAD/Xcelsius and VC is different technology .

2.Does Design Studio Support Hierarchy?

Yes Design Studio supports all OLAP features that BW provides – time dependent hierarchy, attributes, etc.

3.What Are The Differences Between Personal, Shared And Secured Connections?

A Personal connection is created by one user and cannot be used by other users. The connection details are stored in PDAC.LSI file.

A shared connection can be used by other users through a shared server. The connection details are stored in SDAC.LSI file in the Business Objects installation folder. However one cannot set rights and securities on objects in a shared connection. Neither can a Universe to exported to repository using a shared connection.

A secured connection overcomes these limitations. Through it rights can be set on objects and documents. Universes can be exported to the central repository only through a secured connection. The connection parameters in this case are saved in the CMS.

4.What Is A Fan Trap? How Can It Be Solved?

In a universe structure, we may have 3 tables joined in such a way that, the 1st table has a one to many join with the 2nd table, which in turn has a one to many join with the 3rd table(A -< B -< C). In such a scenario, if a measure is present in the 2nd table and it is dragged along with any dimension from the 3rd table, the value of the measure will be inflated. Such a condition is known as a fan trap.

A fan trap is solved by creating an alias of the 2nd table and defining contexts such that, the normal table is joined only with the first table, while the alias is joined with both the 1st and the 3rd table. We would take 2nd table’s measure only from the normal table and other dimensions of the 2nd table from the alias table.

5.Should We Encounter Fan Traps In A Data Warehouse Scenario? If So, Then How?

If a data warehouse is based on the Kimball model, it is a dimensional schema. In a universe built on that DW, for a fan trap to occur in such a schema, we require direct join between two fact tables, which is against the principles of dimensional modeling.

On the other hand in a data warehouse based on Inmon model, it is a normalized schema. Though in such a case, universes are generally designed on Data Marts, which are dimensional schemas (where fan traps should not occur). However, if a universe is built on the DW (for the purpose of operational reporting), then a fan trap can occur in that universe.

6.What Are The 2 Different Approaches Of Implementing Aggregate Awareness? Which One Is Better In Terms Of Performance?

The 2 approaches are as follows:

Aggregate tables are built in the database, which contains the dimension fields(not foreign keys) along with the aggregated measures. In the universe they are present as standalone tables, i.e they are not joined with any dimensions. Aggregate aware function is used to define both the dimensions and measures of such tables.

No aggregate tables are built in the database level. They contain the normal fact table at different granularities. In the universe, aggregate aware is used only to define the measures and aggregate incompatibility is set accordingly.

The first approach is better in terms of performance, since for the higher levels of aggregation, all the information is obtained for a single table. However, a large scale implementation of this approach in a dimensional schema is difficult. In most BI projects, the second approach is preferred.

7.How Can Geo-maps Be Integrated In Design Studio? Are There Any 3rd Party Add-ons Which Design Studio Support For The Same ?

With 1.1 do not have; with 1.2 will not have geo maps; partner using SDK could do that but beta program has just started.

8.We Are Planning Upgrading Ds 1.1 With Sp02, We Noticed That It Will Only Work With Internet Explorer 10?

Works with IE9 – check the PAM or perhaps put in a support ticket.

9.Is Design Studio Using Html 5 For Ipad? Same With Iphone?

Yes, exactly; technology is HTML5 and can deploy on mobile devices. Deploy on iPhone, iPad, or Mobile BI solution .

10.What The Technology Design Studio Use , Which Is Different With Dashboard?

DS is HTML5 based and Dashboard has provided HTML5 version answered before, will become one tool in long-time. DS is optimized for BW and HANA and will offer support for universes.

11.Do We Have Bookmark Concepts In Design Studio In Future ?

Yes this is planned for the future as Design Studio is a successor to WAD.

12.How Can We Make Design Studio Dashboards Available On Mobile?

2 options – 1 for end users use the Mobile BI solution using the Bi platform, category mobile to DS application then see it on the MobI app. Developers can do it locally using QR codes.

13.Is There A Data Size Limit Using Design Studio?

Cannot generally say limit for that – not like Xcelsius limitation. DS uses BICS interface to connect to BW / HANA (analytic/calc views).

14.For Hana Data, The Analysis View Is The Source For Design Studio? How About Other Views?

Calc views can be a data source too .

15.Do You Have Rri (report To Report Interface) Functionality In Design Studio ?

If asking about defined BW – do not have – planned for 1.3 release. if jump from one app to another, can use opendoc link today .

16.Is Ingo’s Book Coming Out Besides On Kindle?

Ingo Hilgefort‘s Design Studio book is only available on the Kindle – you can download a Kindle reader for PC, Cloud reader, iPad, etc.

17.How Is A Derived Table Different From A View? Which One Is A Preferred Solution?

A derived table is present only in the universe level, while a view is created in data base level. Generally views are preferred since, in its case the onus of calculation remains on the database and it does not load the BO server. However, in cases where developers do not have access to database, derived table is the only solution.

18.How Can We Access One Derived Table From Another?

We can access one derived table from another using the function @derived_table.

The syntax is:

@derived_table(Derived Table Name)


19.How Can We Use Index Awareness In Universe Prompt?

An extended prompt syntax is available since BO 3.1. It is as follows

@Prompt( ’message’, ‘type’, [lov],
{‘default value’:’default key’} )

If the indexes for the dimension object is defined in the universe and we define the prompt condition on the object with the clause ‘primary key’ in place of free or constrained, then the filter condition will convert the prompt values entered to their corresponding indexes and eliminate the join with the dimension table

20.What Is A Condition Object? How Is It Different From Query Filter?

A condition object is a filter condition created in the universe level. When this object is dragged in the Query Panel, the filter condition appears in the query SQL.

However a query filter exists in the report only. It is added during building a query. This also appears in the query SQL.

21.What Happens When We Click The Include Button After Linking Two Universes?

After creating a link if the ‘Include’ button is clicked then the tables from core universe are permanently copied into the derived universe and the link is severed.

22.What Are The Added Features Of Interactive Mode In Web Intelligence Over The Normal Java Report Panel? What Are Its Uses?

When Web Intelligence is in Interactive mode, one can create variables, input controls, add report filters, tables and charts in the view mode itself. This is not possible in the normal Java report panel.

The advantage of interactive mode is for power users, who want to do further manipulations on an existing report. Since, it does not allow user to modify queries or existing variables in the report, but allows doing the above mentioned activities on top of the report, it provides a very good means for analysis by the power users without changing the core report in any way.

23.What Is The Difference Between Input And Output Calculation Contexts In A Webi Report?

Input context consists of any dimension objects that need to be included directly in the calculation itself.

Output context consists of one or more dimension objects that determine the aggregation level at which the calculation is displayed.

In Oracle, We Use Instr Function To Display The Position Of A Character In A String. What Is The Corresponding Bo Web Intelligence Report Function, That Does The Same?
The corresponding function is Pos().

The syntax is:

Pos( string input_string; string pattern )

24.Suppose We Want To Display The Total Sum Of A Measure In Row Level Of The Report Block. What Will Be The Solution?

We have to use context Operator In along with keyword report. This will give the total sum of the measure in row level(and anywhere in the report).

The expression will be like:

Sum( Measure In Report )

25.Which Selector Gives The Option Of Multiple Selection In Xcelcius Dashboard? How Do We Make The Multiple Selections?

Only ‘List Builder’ gives the option of multiple selection in Xcelcius. We select multiple rows from the input list and add them to the output list using Add button. The output list gives the selection parameter.

26.Which Xcelsius Components Can We Use For Linking Multiple Dashboard Flash Outputs(swf Files)? Can The Same Components Be Used For A Complete Presentation?

We can use ‘Swf Loader’ as well as ‘Slideshow’ components for linking multiple dashboards. ‘Swf Loader’ can open swf files only, while ‘Slideshow’ can open both swf files and image files.

For presentation purposes, we often need text and images. Hence these are embedded in image files are added to a ‘Slideshow’ along with dashboard outputs. Moreover ‘Swf Loader’ can only open swf through ‘Push Button’ or selector components, whereas ‘Slideshow’ has a feature of automatic slide transition, which loads the image and swf files in the specified sequence. Hence, ‘Slideshow’ is the only feasible option for a complete presentation.

27.What Are The Different Ways In Which An Xcelcius Dashboard Can Access Data From A Bo Universe?

There are 3 ways in which

Xcelcius can access data from the universe:

Query as a Web Service: Using Query as a Web Service tool, we can create a queries from the universe along with filter condition. The QAAWS qury panel is similar to the WebIntelligence query panel. In Xcelcius dashboard, we can create a QAAWS connection that would point to a particular Query and import the data into the excel data sheet of the xlf

Business Intelligence Web Service:

In this method, we can use the output of a report directly in the Xcelcius dashboard. Using Webi Rich Client, we export the report to repository, then select a block from the report, right click and select Publish as Web Service option. However BIWS does not have a connection of its own. We access this BIWS through a QAAWS connection only.


LiveOffice is an additional component that needs to be installed. This creates a sort of plugin for all MS Office applications, though which they can access data from Web Intelligence reports. I MS Excel, we can launch the Live Office Insert Wizard by Insert -> Web Intelligence Content. We can use this wizard to add selective content from a webi report. In the Xcelcius dashboard, a Live Office connection is created andwe access this Live Office excel sheet though this connection.

28.What Is The Use Of The Scope Of Analysis Pane In The Query Tab Of Webi Report?

It has 2 uses:

The Scope of Analysis pane sets the limit of drill down in the report. Suppose we have a hierarchy defined in 3 levels, but if we set the scope of analysis is set to 2 levels, the report will not be able to drill down to the 3rd level. We can also remove objects showing in the scope of analysis pane and limit the drill down.

If the analysis level is set to custom, the objects from existing hierarchies can be dragged in the scope of analysis panel to set the scope for drilldown in the report. This has an advantage that we can drill down to more than 3 levels, which is not possible in the normal level setting, since it is up to 3 only.

29.When Should We Use A Query Filter And When A Report Filter?

The choice of query or report filter has to take in consideration the performance of the report.

Suppose we have report where are multiple tabs having different objects requiring same or different filter conditions, it is advisable to use a Query Filter.

In case where there are multiple tabs having same objects, but with slightly differing filter conditions, it is advisable to fetch the whole data in the query and then apply report filters to the various tabs to get the desired data instead of using separate queries for each tab.

30.We’ve Created A Couple Of Applications Using Web Application Designer (wad), How Hard Will It Be To “migrate” To Design Studio?

Depends how complex WAD is; if using standard WAD, and not your own custom code; planning to provide conversion support. Should be low effort in that case; in case you add custom code and customizing, then it will be hard to migrate using conversion tool.

31.Will It Work With Other Browsers: Firefox, Chrome, Etc?

Yes will work with other browsers……For more  Click Here

For Course Content  Click Here

SAP BI/BW Interview Questions and Answers

Our experts providing SAP BI/BW interview questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

1.Explain the architecture of SAP BW system and its components?

OLAP Processor
Metadata Repository,
Process designer and other functions.
Business Explorer BEx is reporting and analysis tool that support query, analysis and reporting functions in BI. Using BEx, you can analyze historical and current data to different degree of analysis.

2.What is an InfoObject and why it is used in SAP BI?

Info Objects are known as smallest unit in SAP BI and are used in Info Providers, DSO’s, Multi providers, etc. Each Info Provider contains multiple Info Objects.
InfoObjects are used in reports to analyze the data stored and to provide information to decision makers.

3.What are the different categories of InfoObjects in BW system?

Info Objects can be categorized into below categories –

Characteristics like Customer, Product, etc.
Units like Quantity sold, currency, etc.
Key Figures like Total Revenue, Profit, etc.
Time characteristics like Year, quarter, etc.

4.What is the use of Infoarea in SAP BW system?

Info Area in SAP BI are used to group similar types of object together. Info Area are used to manage Info Cubes and Info Objects. Each Info Objects resides in an Info Area and you can define it a folder which is used to hold similar files together.

5.How do you access to source system data in BI without extraction?

To access data in BI source system directly. You can directly access to source system data in BI without extraction using Virtual Providers. Virtual providers can be defined as InfoProviders where transnational data is not stored in the object. Virtual providers allow only read access on BI data.

6.What are different types on Virtual providers?

Virtual Providers based on DTP
VirtualProviders with function modules
VirtualProviders based on BAPI’s

7.Which Virtual Providers are used in which scenario of data extraction?

VirtualProviders based on DTP –

This type of Virtual Providers are based on the data source or an Info Provider and they take characteristics and key figures of source. Same extractors are used to select data in source system as you use to replicate data into BI system.

8.When to Virtual Providers based on DTP?

When only some amount of data is used.
You need to access up to date data from a SAP source system.
Only few users executes queries simultaneously on the database.

9.Virtual Provider with Function Module ?

This Virtual Provider is used to display data from non BI data source to BI without copying the data to BI structure. The data can be local or remote. This is used primarily for SEM application.

10.What is the use of Transformation and how the mapping is done in BW?

Transformation process is used to perform data consolidation, cleansing and data integration. When data is loaded from one BI object to other BI object, transformation is applied on the data. Transformation is used to convert a field of source into the target object format.

Transformation rules –

Transformation rules are used to map source fields and target fields. Different rule types can be used for transformation.

11.How do perform real time data acquisition in BW system?

Real time data acquisition is based on moving data to Business Warehouse in real time. Data is sent to delta queue or PSA table in real time.

Real time data acquisition can be achieved in two scenarios –

By using InfoPackage for real time data acquisition using Service API.
Using Web Service to load data to Persistent Storage Area PSA and then by using real time DTP to move the data to DSO.

Real time Data Acquisition Background Process –

To process data to InfoPackage and data transfer process DTP at regular intervals, you can use a background process known as Daemon.
Daemon process gets all the information from InfoPackage and DTP that which data is to be transferred and which PSA and Data sore objects to be loaded with data.

12.What is InfoObject catalog?

InfoObjects are created in Info Object catalog. It is possible that an Info Object can be assigned to different Info Catalog.

13.What is the use DSO in BW system? What kind of data is stored in DSO’s What are the different components in DSO architecture?

To access data for reporting and analysis immediately after it is loaded,

14.What all data sources you have used to acquire data in SAP BW system?

SAP systems (SAP Applications/SAP ECC)
Relational Database (Oracle, SQL Server, etc.)
Flat File (Excel, Notepad)
Multidimensional Source systems (Universe using UDI connector)
Web Services that transfer data to BI by means of push

15.When you are using SAP BI7.x, you can load the data to which component?

In BW 3.5, you can load data in Persistence Staging Area and also in targets from source system but If you are using SAP BI 7.0 data load should be restricted to PSA only for latest versions.

16.What is an InfoPackage?

An InfoPackage is used to specify how and when to load data to BI system from different data sources. An InfoPackage contains all the information how data is loaded from source system to a data source or PSA. InfoPackage consists of condition for requesting data from a source system.
Note that using an InfoPackage in BW 3.5, you can load data in Persistence Staging Area and also in targets from source system but If you are using SAP BI 7.0 data load should be restricted to PSA only for latest versions.

17.What is extended Star schema? Which of the tables are inside and outside cube in an extended star schema?

In Extended Star schema, Fact tables are connected to Dimension tables and dimension table is connected to SID table and SID table is connected to master data tables. In Extended star schema you have Fact and Dimension tables are inside the cube however SID tables are outside cube. When you load the transactional data into Info cube, Dim Id’s are generated based on SID’s and these Dim id’s are used in fact tables.

18.How extended Star schema is different from Star schema?

In Extended Star schema one fact table can connect to 16 dimensions tables and each dimension table is assigned with 248 maximum SID tables. SID tables are also called Characteristics and each characteristic can have master data tables like ATTR, Text, etc.
In Star Schema, Each Dimension is joined to one single Fact table. Each Dimension is represented by only one dimension and is not further normalized.
Dimension Table contains set of attribute that are used to analyze the data.

19.which Data store object is used?

DataStore object for direct update allows you to access data for reporting and analysis immediately after it is loaded. It is different from standard DSO’s in the way how it processed the data. Data is stored in same format in which it was loaded to DataStore object for direct update by the application.

20.Explain the structure of direct update DSO’s?

one table for active data and no change log area exists. Data is retrieved from external systems using API’s.
Below API’s exists –

RSDRI_ODSO_INSERT: These are used to insert new data.
RSDRI_ODSO_INSERT_RFC: Similar to RSDRI_ODSO_INSERT and can be called up remotely.
RSDRI_ODSO_MODIFY: This is used to insert data having new keys.For data with keys already in the system, the data is changed.
RSDRI_ODSO_MODIFY_RFC: Similar to RSDRI_ODSO_MODIFY and can be called up remotely.
RSDRI_ODSO_UPDATE: This API is used to update existing data.
RSDRI_ODSO_UPDATE_RFC: This is similar to RSDRI_ODSO_UPDATE and can be called up remotely.
RSDRI_ODSO_DELETE_RFC: This API is used to delete the data.

21.Can we perform Delta uploads in direct update DSO’s?

As structure of this DSO contains one table for active data and no change log so this doesn’t allow delta update to InfoProviders.

22.What is write optimized  DSO’s?

In Write optimized DSO, data that is loaded is available immediately for the further processing.

23.Where do we use Write optimized DSO’s?

Write optimized DSO provides a temporary storage area for large sets of data if you are executing complex transformations for this data before it is written to the DataStore object. The data can then be updated to further InfoProviders. You only have to create the complex transformations once for all data.
Write-optimized DataStore objects are used as the EDW layer for saving data. Business rules are only applied when the data is updated to additional InfoProviders.

24.Explain the structure of Write optimized DSO’s? How it is different from Standard DSO’s?

It only contains table of active data and there is no need to activate the data as required with standard DSO. This allows you to process the data more quickly.

25.To perform a Join on dataset, what type of InfoProviders should be used?

Infosets are defined as special type of InfoProviders where data sources contains Join rule on DataStore objects, standard InfoCubes or InfoObject with master data characteristics. InfoSets are used to join data and that data is used in BI system.

26.What is a temporal join?

Temporal Joins: are used to map a period of time. At the time of reporting, other InfoProviders handle time-dependent master data in such a way that the record that is valid for a pre-defined unique key date is used each time. You can define Temporal join that contains atleast one time-dependent characteristic or a pseudo time-dependent InfoProvider.

27.Where do we use InfoSet in BI system?

Infosets are used to analyze the data in multiple InfoProviders by combining master data charactertics, DataStore Objects, and InfoCubes.
You can use temporal join with InfoSet to specify a particular point of time when you want to evaluate the data.
You can use reporting using Business Explorer BEx on DSO’s without enabling BEx indicator.

28.What are the different type of InfoSet joins?

Inner Join
Left Outer Join
Temporal Join
Self Join

29.What is the use of InfoCube in BW system?

InfoCube is defined as multidimensional dataset which is used for analysis in a BEx query. An InfoCube consists of set of relational tables which are logically joined to implement star schema. A Fact table in star schema is joined with multiple dimension tables.
You can add data from one or more InfoSource or InfoProviders to an InfoCube. They are available as InfoProviders for analysis and reporting purposes.

30.What is the structure of InfoCube?

An InfoCube is used to store the data physically. It consists of a number of InfoObjects that are filled with data from staging. It has the structure of a star schema.
In SAP BI, an Infocube contains Extended Star Schema as shown above.
An InfoCube consists of a fact table which is surrounded by 16 dimension tables and master data that is lying outside the cube.

31.What is the use of real time InfoCube? How do you enter data in real time InfoCubes?

Real time InfoCubes are used to support parallel write access. Real time InfoCubes are used in connection with the entry of planning data.
You can enter the data in Real time InfoCubes in two different ways –
Transaction for entering planning data
BI Staging

32.How do you create a real time InfoCube in administrator workbench?

A real time InfoCube can be created using Real Time Indicator check box.

33.Can you make an InfoObject as info provider and why?

Yes, when you want to report on charactertics or master data, you can make them as InfoProvider.

34.Is it possible to convert a standard InfoCube to real time InfoCube?

To convert a standard InfoCube to real time InfoCube, you have two options –
Convert with loss of Transactional data
Conversion with Retention of Transaction Data

35.Can you convert an InfoPackage group into a Process chain?

Yes, Double Click on the info package grp ? Process Chain Maintenance button and type in the name and description.

36.When you define aggregates, what are the available options?

H Hierarchy
F fixed value

37.Can you setup InfoObjects as Virtual Providers?


38.To perform a Union operation on InfoProviders, which InfoProvider is uses?


39.Explain the different between Operation Data store, InfoCube and MultiProvider?

They provide granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drilldown and RRI.
InfoCube –
This is used for star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.
MultiProvider –
It contains a physical data and allow to access data from different InfoProviders.

40.What do you understand by Start and update routine?

Start Routines –

The start routine is run for each Data Package after the data has been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global Data Structures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire Data Package in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.
Update Routines –
They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks….For more  Click Here

For Course Content  Click Here


SAP Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Our experts providing  SAP Testing interview questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

1.What is the use of SAP Testing?

SAP Testing is about testing the functionality of above SAP modules and to ensure that they perform as per the configuration.

2.What is SAP TAO?

SAP TAO is an automation tool to generate test cases for end-to-end scenarios for SAP applications. Apart from this, there are various other Automation testing tools for SAP testing like HP QTP, and ECATT, etc. that can be used.

3.Why do we perform SAP testing in company?

Here is a list of key reasons why SAP testing is performed and why it is an important function in the growth of an organization –

System Validation – SAP Testing involves complete end-to-end testing and validation of all SAP modules in SAP ERP environment.

Quality and Revenue – SAP Testing is an output-based testing and not like conventional testing methods which are input-based. It ensures the quality of SAP system and also focuses on revenue and cost of the organization.

Cost and Predictability – SAP Testing involves reducing the SAP development costs and improve predictability.

Compliance Requirement – SAP Testing ensures that the SAP implementation is meeting the new compliance requirements in a specific organization and all the modules are working as per the expected configuration.

New Implementation and Configuration Changes – There are different types of changes implemented in a SAP system, like patches and fixes, new implementation, configurational changes. Therefore, SAP testing ensures that all the modules are performing as per requirement in this dynamic system environment.

Integration – SAP testing is performed to test various reports, data flows and work flows, GUI forms, etc. It is used to check system integration between different modules. For example, if an order posting is done that requires an action in Sales and Distribution, MM and FICO, then SAP testing checks the integration between these systems.

Performance – It is also used to ensure if the system will be able to meet the Service Level agreements, time taken by system to perform specific actions, performance of the system, etc.


4.What is Integration Testing?

In this testing, multiple systems are combined together to test the output of the integrated system.

5.What is Stress Testing?

In this testing, the system is put into stress beyond its specification to check when it fails.

6.What is Unit Testing?

It is a type of white-box testing that involves testing a single unit or group of units.

7.What is Beta Testing?

The aim of beta testing is to cover unexpected errors. It falls under the class of black-box testing. It is performed by releasing the pre-version of the final product, called Beta.

8.What is ETL Testing?

ETL testing is performed to ensure if data is correctly extracted, transformed, and loaded from a source system to a target system.

9.What is Manual Testing?

Manual testing means you are testing a software manually without using any automated tools or any script. In this type of testing, the tester takes over the role of an end-user and tests the software to identify bugs or any unexpected behavior.

There are different stages of a manual testing. They are – unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and user acceptance testing.

10.What is Automation Testing? How it is different from Manual Testing?

In Automation testing, the tester writes the scripts and uses software tools to test the product. This process involves the automation of a manual process. Automation testing includes re-running the testcases multiple times that were performed manually.

Automation testing is also used to test the application from load, performance, and stress purpose. It is used to increase the coverage of test. Automation testing improves the accuracy and saves time and money in comparison to manual testing.

11.What are the different software Testing tools?

HP Quick Test Professional (QTP)
Load Runner
Win Runner

12.What is the meaning of STLC? Why do we use STLC?

Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) consists of all the steps that are performed in a specific way to ensure that quality goals are met and each step has specific goals and deliverables.

STLC is used to improve the quality of a software product and to make it capable to meet the business requirements to achieve certain goals.

13.What are the different stages under Software Testing Life Cycle?

The different stages that come under Software Testing Life Cycle are as follows –

Requirements phase
Test Planning
Test Analysis
Test Design Phase
Test Implementation
Test Execution Phase
Test Closure Phase

14.Provide an example of Unit and System testing in SAP testing?


Suppose the task is to create a sales order and save it. To perform unit testing for this task, the tester should know that the sales order can be saved using the SAP organization elements like customer master data, partner functions, material master data, company code, credit control area, sales organization, etc.


In ABAP development, Unit testing can be performed to check if a report can be created from developer-generated data. It requires assistance from the domain expert.


If you say a cash flow for a quotation in an organization would show that a quote can be used to create a sales order, a delivery can be created and processed from the order, the delivery can be billed, the billing released to accounting, and a customer payment applied against the accounting invoice.

15.What is SAP Security and Authorization Testing?

Security and Authorizations Testing is used to ensure that users are only able to execute transactions and access appropriate data that is relevant to their project.

As with the implementation of Security standards, this is really important to test if security and authorization is placed in a system. Test IDs for job roles are created and used to both confirm what a user can do and what a user cannot do.

16.What is SAP Cutover Testing?

SAP Cutover Testing

Cutover testing is usually performed once in a project lifecycle. Here a full-scale execution is done of all the tasks involved to extract data from legacy systems. Then, to perform any kind of data conversion, load the results into the SAP system and fully validate the results, including a user sign-off.

17.What is OPA?

OPA tests can be performed to check SAP Testing Navigation. OPA is known as Open Source Programming language and it is mostly used for developing web applications. For compilation of OPA program, you can use Node.js on the server and JavaScript on the client side.

18.What is Screen Flow Logic?

Screen flow logic in SAP Testing is like an ABAP code and it is used to contain the processing blocks. It contains the procedural part of the screen. It is created in screen painter and this screen painter is similar to an ABAP editor.

19.What is Load Testing?

In Load Testing, the tester applies maximum load on a system, either online users or periodic batch processing, and identifies whether the system is capable enough to handle the load. If not, it finds out the steps needed to improve performance.

20.What is System Performance Testing?

Performance testing checks the following aspects –

Whether the system response time is acceptable as per the business requirement

Whether periodic processes are running within permissible time,

Whether the expected concurrent user load can be supported

Performance testing identifies bottlenecks and coding inefficiencies in the SAP system. It is not likely that system performance tuning is perfectly set up and the program is running with optimized code.

21.What is SAP Interface Testing?

Interface testing ensures that a business process on a SAP system runs automatically, the events are triggered, and the results are transferred to the receiver system. Interface testing involves execution on the sending system followed by automatic generation of the interface output, and then the receiving system consuming that file and proving that a business process continues on the receiver.

Ideally, interface testing involves larger testing activities as a project progresses. Interface testing shows that triggering works, the data selection is accurate and complete, data transfer is successful, and the receiver is able to consume the sent data.

22.Is it possible that changing one module can also effect other modules of your SAP implementation? How?

Suppose you have to create a Sales Order in Sales and Distribution (SD) module. Here, you first need to enter the transaction code(e.g., Transaction Code VA01). Next, check the stock of the item in Inventory module and check the credit limit available on Customer profile in Customer Relationship Module. It shows that all these modules are interdependent; if you customize any of these modules, it will affect the related ERP system.

23.Could you provide QTP steps to perform testing for the above scenario?

To perform SAP testing for the above example, follow the steps given below –

The first step is to install HP QTP tool and to install necessary plug-ins within QTP to make it compatible to connect to ERP system.

The next step is to use HP Quality Center (QC) to develop the test plan and then to convert test plan design to Test Scripts. These test plans can be converted to scripts using HP QTP.

Next, record the R/3 GUI screen of SAP system for SD module while creating Sales Order or creating PR in MM.

After you are done with the recording in QTP tool, create a script in VB.

SAPGuiSession(“Session”).SAPGuiWindow(“SAP Easy Access – User”).SAPGuiOKCode(“OKCode”).Set “/nVA01”

SAPGuiSession(“Session”).SAPGuiWindow(“SAP Easy Access – User”). SendKey ENTER

You can also add different parameters and customizations as per your requirement.

24.What are the important points that you should consider while performing Interface Testing?

SAP Interface testing is purely dependent on the operations and organizational processes. While performing SAP Interface Testing, you need to consider the following key points –

25.What is the purpose of using SAP Interface and what business scenarios are processed by the interface?

Check if the Interface is processing all business scenarios accurately as per the test strategy.

To perform Interface testing, the best practice is to start with performing Unit testing.

You have to check if the outbound interface is alright, which means that it ensures to perform file meeting specifications in terms of layout, etc.

You have to check if the inbound interface is okay. Check if it is reading the file correctly and if it is performing the correct steps in the target system.

26.What is Test Case?

SAP test-cases are required to perform a check on the installation and configuration of the SAP system, any new implementation, multi-language and device testing, intranet testing, real-time testing, etc.

27.Could you provide functional test cases to test a SAP SD system?

To create a SAP test-case, you can pass input data (correct and Incorrect and see the outcome) –

Correct Input Data

Order Date 01/01/2016, Order Type Sales Order
Expiry Date 15/01/2016, Shipping Date 10/01/2016,
Select Payment Due Date 10/01/2015, Item Qty 10, etc.
Incorrect Input Data

Order Date 01/01/2017, Order Type Sales Order
Expiry Date 15/01/2017, Shipping Date 10/01/2017,
Select Payment Due Date 10/01/2017, Item Qty 0, etc.
Output Data – With Correct Data

Order is successfully saved in SAP module and invoiced.
Next is Packing slip number.
Next is Shipping Order number, etc.
Output Data – With incorrect Data

Error message for incorrect data input. Text message for incorrect input data should be defined in the system.

Expected Output

Sales Order#
Sales Invoice#
Packing List#, etc.

28.What is the use of SAP TAO?

SAP TAO helps customers to fasten the process of creating automated test cases for SAP systems. Automation testing using TAO is performed by creating test components for various transactions in SAP modules.

29.What are the features of SAP TAO?

SAP TAO enables customers to breakdown a single software into multiple parts which can be integrated to test cases using a simple interface by dragging and dropping each part.

TAO supports flexible reuse of test cases and data.

If there is any functional change in the system, it is easy to maintain test-cases because of this change.

30.What versions of SAP TAO you have used?

TAO 2.0 and TAO 3.0.

31.What are the different tools that can be integrated with SAP TAO?

SAP TAO can be easily integrated with various tools to create automated test-cases. Some common tools which can be integrated with TAO are –

SAP Solution Manager (Solman).
HP Quality Center QC.
HP Quality Test Professional QTP

32.What are the different tasks that you can perform using SAP TAO?

SAP TAO performs the following tasks in SAP Testing Lifecycle –

Test Cases creation
Regeneration of affected components
Test Cases Consolidation
Test Execution

33.What is the use of Process Flow Analyzer in SAP TAO?

The first component is Process Flow Analyzer which is used to automatically find out the user interfaces used in transaction codes executed in the SAP system. It automatically creates the test components and uploads them to Quality Center.

Process Flow Analyzer is also used to identify the sequence of test components as per user actions and creation of spreadsheet values.

34.How do you track the changes and impact on SAP system using TAO?

Change Analyzer is used to track the changes and impact on the SAP system. When you make any change to a SAP system, it identifies the affected business processes.

To use Change Analyzer, select the specific project and click the change impact analysis option. It will allow you to review and repair the impacted components in the SAP system because of this change.

35.Where do you store all the test components and flow in SAP TAO?

Repository is used to contain information about all the test components and flow in a project. To review information about any test component and to check the process flow, you can click Component Explorer or PFA Explorer.

36.What is TBOM?

Technical Bill of Material TBOM

37.What is the use of TBOM in SAP TAO?

Test building is done in Quality Center using SAP TAO. You need to consolidate test components to create test scenarios. You can execute a single or multiple tests in SAP TAO using Technical Bill of Material TBOM.

38.How do you perform a Single Test execution?

Technical Bill of Material (TBOM) is used to contain the objects in an executable form. Change Analyzer makes use of this to tell if an executable object is affected when a change is performed.

In case you want to use the Business Process Change Analyzer, you need to generate a TBOM for each executable object in test scenarios and processes.

Note – If you need to run a single test and you have to update TBOM, click Execute and update TBOM.

You can check the details of update on the TBOM page. You can modify the run list that is created in SAP TAO.

39.How do you perform multiple test executions?

In Business Process Change Analyzer, to execute multiple tests, you can select a folder and add it to the run list. You can also select TBOM creation at the time of execution.

Note – If TBOM already exists at time of execution, it will only update the existing TBOM.

40.What is the use of SAP TAO UI Scanner?

UI scanner is used to create new screen components with existing components. It is a plugin for QTP tool. You should try to use inspect tab over UI scanner. The standard UI scanner works only with GUI front-end client. You can also use third-party UI scanner for capturing the screen components.

41.Which version of SAP Solman is compatible with TAO 3.0?

Solution Manager 7.1 Onwards

42.What is Business Process Testing?

Business Process Testing (BPT) is a part of QTP automation framework and is used with the Quality Center by HP. BPT is used to create automation test scenarios and run those scenarios without any prior knowledge of automation.

HP BPT removes the complexity of test-case creation and maintenance and combines all the documentation and test automation in one effort.

Business Process Testing aligns the testing process with business goals and reduces the testing lifecycle time considerably.

43.What is HP-ALM tool?

HP Quality Center, a test management tool, is now popularly known as Application Life Cycle Management (ALM) tool, as it is no longer just a test management tool but it supports various phases of the software development life cycle.

42.What are the advantages of using HP-ALM tool?

HP-ALM helps us to manage project milestones, deliverables, resources and keeping track of project health, standards that allow Product owners to gauge the current status of the product. It is important to understand history, architecture, and Quality Center Workflow.

44.Have you used HP QTP? What is the use?

HP Quick Test Professional (QTP) is an automated functional testing tool that helps testers to perform automated regression testing in order to identify any gaps, errors/defects in contrary to the actual/desired results of the application under test.

45.What is difference between non reusable, usable, and external reusable actions in QTP?

Non-reusable action – An action that can be called only in that specific test in which it has been designed and can be called only once.

Reusable action – An action that can be called multiple times any test in which it resides and can also be used by any other tests.

External Reusable action – It is a reusable action stored in another test. External actions are read-only in the calling test, but it can be used locally with the editable copy of the Data Table information for the external action.

46.Explain the use of Consolidation tab in SAP TAO?

Consolidate is known as a process to combine SAP TAO components with inbuilt components to create test scenarios as single transnational business components. It allows you to collect multiple test components into one test.

47.Process Flow Analyzer wizard is available in TAO 2.0?

SAP TAO 3.0 contains a Process Flow Analyzer recording wizard which can be used to ease the test recording.

48.To connect SAP TAO to Solution Manager, which table setting needs to be updated?

You need to display the table name: AGS_TAO_SETTING and change the value for AGS_TAO_ENABLE_SM_SETUP to ON.

49.What is the use of actions in QTP tool?

Actions help testers to divide scripts into groups of QTP statements called actions. Actions are similar to functions in VBScript, however there are a few differences. By default, QTP creates a test with 1 action

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SAP Testing Interview Questions

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SAP Hybris Interview Questions and Answers

Our experts providing SAP Hybris interview questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC’s, doesn’t matter what kind of company you’re hired.

1.How To Run Multiple Hybris Instance In One Machine?

Basically hybrid runs on a tomcat instance. Hybris is shipped with a bundled tomcat. So the question here is actually, how to run multiple tomcat in one machine.

We can run as many hybris we want, till our machine memory permits. To do so, we need to make each instance of tomcat to have it’s own ports to use. Make below ports unique for each instance. We should add below properties in local property file of each instance with unique values..






2.Why Order Is Important In Items.xml?

We need to follow an order in items.xml, when we declare item types in items.xml. Below are the reasons for it.

Each items.xml is parsed in single pass. This means, more specific types are dependent on general types. In such case they should have been defined before we use them. For example,

Here we see that, item type product is using other item types, like catalog. To make this file successfully, it is mandatory that catalog exist before product is declared. We must defines types in order of inheritance.

NOTE: Impex files are parsed in multiple pass, so order is not important there.

Each xml file is validated against a items.xsd during build. If the xml file does not conforms to xsd file, build will fail.

3.What Is Role Of Jalosession?

The Jalo layer in hybris is depreacted, not the jalosession.

Whenever a request is made to hybris server, it may need current user details, currency, language, timezone etc to serve that request efficiently. Since HttpSession does not hold all these details, hybris came up with the concept of JaloSession.

Whenever a request comes to Hybris, the filter HybrisInitFilter creates an object of JaloSession. Every JaloSession object is associated with a SessionContext object, which has current user, language, currency etc and the current httpSession object.

Cron jobs also run in a JaloSession.
Each JaloSession is bound to a tenant. This cannot be changed, after the instance of JaloSession is created.
JaloSession is never made persistent in database.

4.What Are Model Attributes?

Some time it is necessary to get few data in many JSPs, and we don’t want to pass them as a part of DTO (data objects). For example, the titles (Mr and Mrs etc). They can be used in many JSPs and tags file, like registration, delivery address etc.

In such cases, what we do is, create a convenient method in Abstract controllers, and use model attribute annotation for them. In this way they are available from all JSPs directly using model attribute.

These can be accessed directly in JSPs or even tag files. like

Current Language : ${current Language}

Model service create method vs new operator

When we try to create a new instances of an item type programmatically, we have two options, using the java way, using new operator or the hybris way, using the model service.

ProductModel product1 = new ProductModel();

ProductModel product2 = modelService.create(ProductModel.class);

The advantages of using model service method are below:

The model service create method will generate and assign the pk for product object.
The create method will initialize the default values, defined in items.xml for mandatory attributes.
While calling save all method, the object is already attached to context, and will be saved. While product1 needs to attach explicitly.
So we should always go for model service way in hybris.

5.Why Models Are Generated In Platform Extensions?

Hybris is build over the concepts of extensions. Each extension has it’s own data model. Any extension can use an item type from other extension and extend it as per requirement.

For example, the itemtype product defined in core extension. The catalog extension has extended the product itemtype, and added vendor to it.

While building the hybris, the frameworks builds according to dependencies. Since core is build before catalog extension, it is not aware of the vendor attribute defined in catalog extension. If we keep model class in extensions, then there will e chance of build failures. Like in our case, vendor attribute will not find a place in Product Model class.

Hybris build framework, creates model classes, even before, building any extension. The platform is the best place to keep them, as every extension is built upon it only. So it is not logical to create model classes in particular extensions, when we can define same data model in various extension.

6.How To Split An Order Into Multiple Consignment?

While fulfilling an order, some time it is necessary for business to split the order into multiple orders.

For instance, a customer orders two items A and B, now A has delivery window of 2 days, while B can be delivered in minimum 5 days. Now business has the option to either ship both items in 5 days. But what if item A is fresh, and will get destroyed in 5 days. There may be a case, where customer wants a mandatory delivery of item A within 2 days. In such situations, if business house doesn’t want to loose customer, it has no choice but to split order and ship it multiple times. This is the case of split consignment.

Now there may be various conditions, which may call for splitting the order into multiple consignments. Above example is just one of them. For example, we may want to split consignment, based on warehouse from where item will be picked up. We may want to split consignment, based on product type (fresh or ambient) etc. These situations which decides the business logic to be a case for splitting the consignments, are known as splitting strategies. We can have as many as strategy to split, as we want.

By default, hybris creates only one consignment for an order. This is done by following service.

As you can see, that the order Splitting Service accepts a list of strategies, we can create many strategies, and split our order. The actual business logic for splitting will go into strategy class.

7.How To Setup A Svn Environment For Hybris Projects?

Maintaining a version system for any project is one of the most crucial aspect. Hybris projects are not special in this regard. They also do have the same life cycle in terms of development. We need to maintain different environments like SIT, UAT etc. To provide a local development environment is also equally important.

Since the size of OOB Hybris is huge, it is difficult to put everything in SVN (or GIT). Also it is not advisable. The hybris is improvising every day. A new release should not give us pain in terms of development.

The best practice for versioning a hybris project could be:

Put only custom folder, containing customized extensions to versioning software.
Pass latest, local extensions locally to each developers.
Maintain copy of latest, local extensions in each of servers like development and SIT, UAT etc.
Hybris software is wrapped around custom folder on each environment.
Media folder could possibly in SVN or can be passed locally like property files.
production environment, normally is not connected to SVN. Rather we take the most stable copy from UAT and deploy it using some deployment tool like , bamboo.

These core tutorials will help you to learn the fundamentals of Tableau.

For an in-depth understanding and practical experience, explore SAP Hybris Training.

8.What Are Catalog Aware Item Types?

While creating a data model for your project, you might come across situations, where you might want some of your item types to be part of catalog. This means, you want them to synchronize, you want them to be associated with a catalog, content or product. Such item types are known as catalog aware. It’s not just CMS item types or products, that needs synchronization. All OOB CMS items and products are catalog aware.

To explicitly make an item type to be catalog aware, follow below steps:
Mark your item as catalog item type, using custom property catalog ItemType.
Choose attribute from item, which will qualify the catalog associated using custom property catalog Version Attribute Qualifier.
Since each item in a catalog must be unique, we need to choose an attribute from item which is unique. This can be done using custom property unique Key Attribute Qualifier.
<itemtype code=”MyItemType” autocreate=”false” generate=”false”>


<property name=”catalogItemType”><value>java.lang.Boolean.TRUE</value></property>

<property name=”catalogVersionAttributeQualifier”><value>”catalogVersion”</value></property>

<property name=”uniqueKeyAttributeQualifier”><value>”code”</value></property>



<attribute qualifier=”catalogVersion” type=”CatalogVersion”>

<modifiers read=”true” write=”true” search=”true” optional=”false” unique=”true”/>

<persistence type=”property”/>


Once updating your item type, you should update your platform, using system update.

And you should see something like below in HMC > System > item types > My ItemType > Extended

Now, instances of this itemtype will be catalog aware, and would be part of synchronization.

9.Will It Perform If We Have Over 1 Million Skus?

Yes, if you have used APIs, flexi search in a right way. If you have used pagination in your flexi search and converter caches than it will not matter how much SKUs you have.

10.Is It Scalable?

Hybris is spring JEE based platform and it is as scalable as any other java based platform.
Adding new cluster node is just a matter of starting a new Hybris instance with 3 property changes.
Hybris will automatically add that node in cluster. It has distributed cache per server and it’s out of the box cache invalidation over UDP is very much efficient.

11.Is It Configurable Or Require Deployment For All Sort Of Changes?

Mostly configuration until you has not done your own customizations. Even you can expose your custom elements to hmc and from there you can also change your configuration on the fly.

12.How Easy It Is To Migrate From Existing Magento Or Custom Ecommerce Solution To Hybris Platform?

It will depend but highly feasible. Their data import process is very much flexible. Once data mapping is done it is easy to migrate.

13.How Secure It Is?

Spring security is integrated OOB.

14.How Easy To Learn This?

Actually if you know spring and has concept of basic ecommerce than not much effort required to learn Hybris platform. You need to be familiar with impex and flexi search syntax but plenty of examples are available to learn this

15.Do They Have On Demand Flavor Also?

Yes, recently introduced as an offering.

16.Can We Use Hybris For Product Enrichment Also?

Yes, their PIM module is meant for this.

17.How You Will Compare This With Atg Or Wcs?

Very soon Hybris will be on top of these because of its simplicity.

18.Can We Use This As A Fully Fledged Content Management Solution?

No, if your site is very much specific to content management and you want to manage specific version of -individual content than wcms is not the right solution for you.
Otherwise it has all features that are required for an ecommerce application.

19.How Flexible Promotion Module Is?

Lot many promotions are available out of the box and you can extend their framework very easily to introduce your custom promotion.

20.Please Talk About Search Capabilities?

Google commerce search over cloud. What else I need to say. If GCS doesn’t suits to you then use SOLR as a free solution. It is available OOB.

21.What Integration Topologies It Provides?

Whatever you want….pre-integrated ActiveMQ on tomcat is available for messaging. Restful web services frameworks are available OOB.

21.Does It Have Business Processing Capabilities Also?

Yes, limited but you can define your workflows. Moreover you can modify your workflow decisions on the fly through hmc…… For more Click Here

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