Internet of Things Interview Questions

1) What is the Internet Of Things (IoT)?
Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects or people called “things” that are embedded with software, electronics, network, and sensors that allow these objects to collect and exchange data. The goal of IoT is to extend to internet connectivity from standard devices like computer, mobile, tablet to relatively dumb devices like a toaster.

2) Explain Raspberry Pi?
Raspberry Pi is a computer which is capable of doing all the operations like a conventional computer. It has other features such as onboard WiFi, GPIO pins, and Bluetooth in order to communicate with external things.

3) How to run Raspberry pi in headless mode?
Raspberry pi in headless mode can be run by using SSH. The latest operating system has an inbuilt VNC server that is installed for taking remote desktop on Raspberry Pi.

4) What are the fundamental components of IoT?
The four fundamental components of an IoT system are:

Sensors/Devices: Sensors or devices are a key component that helps you to collect live data from the surrounding environment. All this data may have various levels of complexities. It could be a simple temperature monitoring sensor, or it may be in the form of the video feed.
Connectivity: All the collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure. The sensors should be connected to the cloud using various mediums of communications. These communication mediums include mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, etc.
Data Processing: Once that data is collected, and it gets to the cloud, the software product performs processing on the gathered data. This process can be just checking the temperature, reading on devices like AC or heaters. However, it can sometimes also be very complex, like identifying objects, using computer vision on video.
User Interface: The information needs to be available to the end-user in some way, which can be achieved by triggering alarms on their phones or sending them notification through email or text message. The user sometimes might need an interface which actively checks their IoT system.

5) List layers of IoT protocol stack?
Layers of IoT protocol stack are:

1) Sensing and information,

2) Network connectivity,

3) Information processing layer,

4) Application layer.

6) What are the disadvantages of IoT?
The disadvantages of IoT are:

  • Security: IoT technology creates an ecosystem of connected devices. However, during this process, the system may offer little authentication control despite sufficient cybersecurity measures.
  • Privacy: The use of IoT, exposes a substantial amount of personal data, in extreme detail, without the user’s active participation. This creates lots of privacy issues.
  • Flexibility: There is a huge concern regarding the flexibility of an IoT system. It is mainly regarding integrating with another system as there are many diverse systems involved in the process.
  • Complexity: The design of the IoT system is also quite complicated. Moreover, it’s deployment and maintenance also not very easy.
  • Compliance: IoT has its own set of rules and regulations. However, because of its complexity, the task of compliance is quite challenging.

7) Define Arduino?
Arduino is a free electronics platform having easy to use hardware and software. It has a microcontroller capable of reading input from sensors to control the motors programmatically.

8) List mostly used sensors types in IoT
Mostly used sensor types in IoT are:

  • Smoke sensor
  • Temperature
  • sensors
  • Pressure sensor
  • Motion detection
  • sensors
  • Gas sensor
  • Proximity sensor
  • IR sensors

9) Mention the basic difference between IoT and sensor businesses?
A sensor business does not need an active internet connection to work. Internet of Things requires a control side to work.

10) What is Bluegiga APX4 protocol?
The Bluegiga APX4 is a solution that supports both the WiFI and BLE platform, and it is based on a 450MHz ARM9 processor.

11) What is Pulse Width Modulation?
PWM or Pulse Width Modulation is a variation of how much time the signal is high in an analog fashion. The signal can be high or low, and the user can even change the proportion of the time.

12) Mention applications of PWM in IoT?
Applications of PWM in IoT are controlling the speed of DC motor, Controlling the direction of a servo moto, Dimming LED, etc.

13) List available wireless communications boards available in Raspberry Pi?
Wireless communications boards available in Raspberry Pi are

1) WiFi and

2) BLE/Bluetooth.

11) How will IoT impact the businesses?
Companies are focused to increase the speed to take the products to the market and to grow their performance. With automation and evolving systems, a company may see a huge high jump in its efficiency. There is a great opportunity for small businesses to jump for exponential growth.

12) What difference will Internet Of Things bring to the transportation sector?
Transportation has already been touched by the internet of things. The sector is becoming more connected adding to its advantage. GPS is itself a very helpful factor in vehicles. The speed in the transportation sector will directly imply the speed in human life. The exchange of goods will happen at a faster speed and the safety will be taken into consideration at the same time. Already the concept of driverless vehicles has turned out to be hot

13) What is the difference between Raspberry Pi and Arduino?
Raspberry pi is a computer which is as the size of a credit card but is sufficient to perform operations like that of a normal computer. Arduino is an electronic platform and is open-source. It is efficient in taking the input from sensors. Raspberry pi is considered a little higher when compared to Arduino for its superior CPU processing and other factors like that.

14) What are the important components of the Internet Of Things?
There are three important components of the Internet of things (IoT). These are Hardware, software and Conversation Infrastructure.

15) What impact will IoT have on the healthcare sector?
The health sector is going to experience an era of advancement that will involve the safety and automation of medical devices. Analyzing a patient would be easier and efficient using IoT. It will have a major impact on prevention as well as a treatment of any disease or injury. Additionally, with more automation to human life, it is possible that the physique of humans will drop down and obesity might become a greater problem. With jobs being eaten up by IoT, stress could also come up as another giant problem to the health sector. So IoT has both positive and negative impacts on the health sector. But it is quite obvious that humans will cope up with the stress and will move ahead as we have done from our past to adapt to the situation.

16) Why will energy consumption be a concern after the implementation of Internet Of Things?

The energy is required by the gadgets of Internet Of Things in the form of electricity. It could become a concern since electricity is needed for sensing as well as for the processing of data. Lack of electricity might become a problem in the working of gadgets.

17) Which companies are working for the Internet Of Things?
Samsung, Apple, Cisco, Google, and LG are some of the giants that are already working on the Internet of Things. They are working to make gadgets to be connected. Many small business and agencies have also entered towards the path to IoT for expansion.

18) Write a query to insert bulk data to MongoDB?

var huge= db.IoTCollection.initializeUnorderedBulkOp();

huge.insert({location:”India”, count:456, polls:456});

huge.insert({location:”Russia:, count:567, polls:567});

huge.insert({location:”China”, count:789, polls:789});

huge.insert({location:”USA”, count:123, polls:123});


19) Which sensors are most commonly used in IoT ?
The most commonly used sensors in IoT are sensors related to temperature, gas, smoke, detecting motion and pressure sensor.

20) Can Internet Of Things ( IoT ) entirely take the place of the human mind and thereby take the decisions itself?
No. I don’t agree with this statement that the Internet Of Things (IoT) can completely take place of the human mind. To some extent, it can do some particular tasks replacing the human mind but when it comes about taking the decisions, the human mind is obviously required. IoT is good for telling probability and measuring the statistics of the data but the decision is under the control of the human mind.

21. What is the importance of the Internet of Everything?
Ans: Internet of Everything is important because:

People, processes, things, and data are all pulled together to make network links meaningful and vital.
It turns data into practices, allowing companies to build new skills and opportunities.
Related Article: Future Scope of IoT

22. Define IoT Contiki?
Ans: Internet of Things (IoT) Contiki is a software program developed especially for small Internet-connected devices. It is used in accordance with process power bandwidth, power, and memory constraints. Contiki assists in program management, resource management, process management, communication, and memory management.

23. What is the default operating system of Raspberry Pi, May I use any other operating systems?
Ans: Yeah, we can use Windows and any Linux operating system built for Arm-based devices, but Raspbian is the Raspberry Pi’s default operating system.

24. How to run Raspberry pi in headless mode?
Ans: SSH can be used to run the Raspberry Pi in headless mode. The most recent operating system has an inbuilt VNC server, which can be used to take a remote desktop on the Raspberry Pi.

25. What are the popular software IDEs are using in IoT?
Ans: Each prototype system family has its production IDE, such as the Arduino IDE, Keil IDE, GCC compilers, and so on

26. What are the popular hardware prototypes are using in IOT?
Ans: More hardware prototype modules, such as Arduino, Raspberry Pi, and ARM Cortex Family, are being used in IOT implementation.

27. What are the available models in Raspberry Pi?
Ans: The modes in Raspberry are as follows:

  • Raspberry Pi 1 model B.
  • Raspberry Pi 1 model A.
  • Raspberry Pi 1 model B+.
  • Raspberry Pi 1model A+.
  • Raspberry Pi Zero.
  • Raspberry Pi 2.
  • Raspberry Pi 3 model B.
  • Raspberry Pi Zero W.

28. What is Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Protocol for an Internet of Things (IoT)?
Ans: Nokia first implemented this protocol in 2006 as wibree. Because of the unique Bluetooth, this protocol is also known as Bluetooth Smart. It provides the same spectrum coverage with a substantial reduction in intensity intake. It has a similar bandwidth to Zigbee, which uses the same narrow spacing. Low electricity latency and reduced complexity allow it more suited for use in low-cost microcontrollers.

29. State the differences between Arduino and Raspberry pi?
Ans: The difference between Arduino and Raspberry pi is:


  • Arduino is an open, programmable USB microcontroller.
  • Raspberry pi is a credit card size computer.
    Raspberry pi:
  • It can execute one program at a time.
  • Users can run more than one program at a time.

30. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on the Transportation Sector?
Ans: Transportation infrastructure is becoming more and more interconnected. New automobiles are equipped with features such as global positioning systems (GPS) and in-vehicle entertainment, and advanced driver assistance systems (adas), which use sensors inside the vehicle to assist the driver with tasks such as parking and emergency braking.

31. What is the programming language supported by MongoDB?
Ans: The following are the list of programming languages supported by MongoDB.

Actionscript info.
Clojure info.
ColdFusion info.
D info.
Dart info.
Delphi info.
Go info.
Groovy info.
Lisp info.
Lua info.
MatLab info.
PowerShell info.
Prolog info.
R info.

33. What are the hardware communication interfaces present in the Arduino board?
It has several communication protocols like I2C, SPI, Serial, PWM and etc.

34. Can NodeMCU act as a web server?
Yeah, using the Arduino library ESP8266WebServer. This is an ESP8266 catalogue. For other NodeMCU boards, related libraries are also available.

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